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11 Types of Excavator Operation Knowledge You Must Know

1. Environmental factors

It is necessary to confirm the surrounding environment before operation. During the rotation operation, observe the surrounding status and roughly locate the objects in the surrounding environment to prevent accidents caused by contact during operation. During operation, adjust the direction of the crawler track to avoid tipping and impact at the same time. It is also necessary to ensure that the left and right crawler tracks are in complete contact with the ground to improve the dynamic stability of the entire machine.

2. Best operation of bucket

When the bucket cylinder and connecting rod, arm cylinder and arm are at 90 degrees to each other, the digging force is maximum; when the bucket teeth and the ground maintain an angle of 30 degrees, the resistance is minimal; when digging with the arm, the bucket should be Rod angles range from 45 degrees at the front to 30 degrees at the back.

3. Excavation of hard objects

Direct excavation of hard objects such as stones should be avoided to prevent damage to the digging teeth; if excavation is necessary, the position of the excavator should be adjusted based on factors such as the direction of rock cracks. If conditions permit, a breaker should be used to crush the excavation teeth before excavation.

4. Ground leveling

When performing surface trimming, the machine should be placed flat on the ground to prevent the body from shaking. It is necessary to grasp the coordination of the movements of the boom and the stick. Controlling the speed of both is crucial for surface trimming.

5. Excavator loading operations

When loading, the excavator should be in a relatively horizontal and stable position. The excavator and the truck should be kept at an appropriate distance to prevent collision with the truck during rotation. Loading is mainly done by turning left to have a wide field of vision and high operating efficiency. At the same time, the rotation must be correctly grasped. angle to reduce the turning time; the truck should be positioned lower than the excavator to shorten the boom lifting time and provide good visibility; load sand and gravel first, and then place large rocks to reduce impact on the truck.

6. Excavator works in soft areas or in water

When operating in soft soil areas, you should understand the degree of soil looseness and pay attention to limiting the excavation range of the bucket to prevent accidents such as landslides and collapses and deep sinking of the vehicle body.When working in water, attention should be paid to the allowable water depth range of the vehicle body (the water surface should be below the center of the supporting sprocket); if the water level is high, the inside of the slewing bearing will be poorly lubricated due to the entry of water, and the engine fan blades will be damaged by water. Damage, electrical circuit components short circuit or open circuit due to water intrusion.

7. Excavator hoisting operations

When using a hydraulic excavator to perform hoisting operations, you should confirm the surrounding conditions of the hoisting site, use high-strength hooks and wire ropes, and try to use special hoisting devices when hoisting; the operating method should choose the micro-operation mode, and the movements should be slow and balanced; hoisting ropes The length should be appropriate. If it is too long, the hanging object will swing too much and it will be difficult to control accurately. The bucket position must be adjusted correctly to prevent the steel wire rope from slipping. Construction workers should try not to get close to the hoisting object to prevent danger due to improper operation.

8. Smooth operation method of excavator

During operation, the stability of the machine can not only improve work efficiency and extend the life of the machine, but also ensure safe operation (place the machine on a flatter ground); the driving sprocket is more stable on the rear side than on the front side, and It can prevent the final drive from being hit by external forces; the wheelbase of the crawler track on the ground is always greater than the wheelbase, so forward working stability is good, and sideways operation should be avoided as much as possible; the excavation point should be kept close to the machine to improve stability and excavator ; If the excavation point is far away from the machine, the operation will be unstable due to the forward center of gravity; lateral excavation is less stable than forward excavation. If the excavation point is far away from the center of the machine, the machine will be more unstable, so the excavation point and the center of the machine body should be kept appropriate. distance for balanced and efficient operation.

9. Noteworthy excavator operations

There is a buffer device inside the hydraulic cylinder, which can gradually release the back pressure near the end of the stroke; if it is subjected to an impact load after reaching the end of the stroke, the piston will directly hit the cylinder head or bottom, which is likely to cause an accident. Therefore, try your best to reach the end of the stroke. Leave some room.Using rotational movements for bulldozing operations will cause abnormal stress on the bucket and working equipment, causing distortion, cracking of welds, and even broken pins. This type of operation should be avoided as much as possible.Using the weight of the machine body for excavation will cause the slewing bearing to be in an abnormal stress state, and will also produce strong vibration and impact on the chassis. Therefore, hydraulic cylinders or hydraulic pipelines should be used to cause greater damage.When loading and unloading heavy materials such as rocks, the materials should be unloaded close to the bottom of the truck compartment, or the soil should be loaded first and then the rocks. Unloading at high altitudes is prohibited to reduce impact damage to the truck.When the crawler track sinks deeply into the mud, place a wooden board under the bucket, use the bottom end of the bucket to support the crawler track, then place a wooden board under the crawler track and drive the machine out.

10. Excavator walking

When the excavator is walking, the working device should be stowed away as close to the center of the body as possible to maintain stability; the final drive should be placed behind to protect the final drive.Try to avoid driving over obstacles such as tree stumps and rocks to prevent the track from twisting; if you must drive over an obstacle, make sure the center of the track is on the obstacle.When passing over mounds, always use working devices to support the chassis to prevent the vehicle body from shaking violently or even tipping over.
You should avoid parking the engine on a steep slope for a long time and running the engine at idle speed, otherwise it will cause poor lubrication due to changes in the oil level angle; long-distance running of the machine will cause high temperatures inside the supporting wheels and final drive due to long-term rotation, and the oil viscosity will decrease and The lubrication is poor, so the machine should be shut down frequently for cooling to extend the life of the lower body.When walking uphill, the driving wheel should be at the rear to increase the adhesion of the track on the ground.When walking downhill, the driving wheel should be in front to tighten the upper track to prevent the vehicle body from sliding forward under the action of gravity when parking and causing danger.When walking on a slope, the working device should be placed in front to ensure safety. After parking, gently insert the bucket into the ground and put blocks under the crawler tracks.When walking on a steep slope and turning, you should slow down the speed, turn the left crawler backward when turning left, and turn the right crawler backward when turning right. This can reduce the risk when turning on a slope.

11. Excavator crushing operation

First, place the hammer head vertically on the object to be broken. When starting the crushing operation, lift the front body about 5cm. When crushing, the crushing head should always be pressed on the broken objects. After the unbreakable objects have been crushed, the crushing operation should be stopped immediately.During crushing, since vibration will gradually change the direction of the hammer head, the bucket cylinder should be adjusted at any time to make the direction of the hammer head perpendicular to the surface of the broken object.When the hammer head cannot penetrate the broken object, the crushing position should be changed; do not continue crushing in the following place for more than one minute, otherwise not only the hammer head will be damaged, but also the oil temperature will rise abnormally; for hard objects, the crushing should be gradual starting from the edge .It is strictly prohibited to break while rotating, twist the hammer head after inserting it, use the hydraulic hammer horizontally or upward, or use the hydraulic hammer as a chisel.


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